When and where has proportional representation been instituted?

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home/zanlus/drupal-6.38/sites/all/modules/v.old/views.module on line 906.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home/zanlus/drupal-6.38/sites/all/modules/v.old/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 607.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /home/zanlus/drupal-6.38/sites/all/modules/v.old/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 607.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_boolean_operator::value_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::value_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home/zanlus/drupal-6.38/sites/all/modules/v.old/handlers/views_handler_filter_boolean_operator.inc on line 159.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /home/zanlus/drupal-6.38/sites/all/modules/v.old/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 134.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state) in /home/zanlus/drupal-6.38/sites/all/modules/v.old/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 134.

The definition of 'proportional representation' is contested. Variants include Mixed-member, Partly-list, Single transferable vote, Cumulative voting and others. None of these are intended to extend to a random selection of citizens in order to select a representative sample of the population.

Given the limitations of the definition, the fact is that more than half of the world's countries use some form of 'proportional representation', usually connected to balloting through a political party.